Essay on Infertility

Hey guys. Sorry for not posting for so long. Here’s an essay I wrote on infertility. I hope you like it.

Infertility is a big issue that occurs to 1 in every 8 couples. Although at first it was believed to only be woman’s issue but due to all the technological advancements, science has been able to confirm that infertility can be an issue to both sexes. Both male and female infertility have one-third of the contribution. (Female Infertility) Infertility which means not being able to conceive a baby. There are many different causes for both men and women, for women they may stretch from ovulation disorders to Endometriosis. While the causes for men can range up from sperm production to sperm antibodies. (Causes) (Newcombe, Rachel) (Causes of infertility) (Male infertility) (Female infertility).

For females, ovulation disorder means in some way or another, either the Ovary doesn’t produce eggs or the hormone production is reduced. There are 4 different Ovulation disorders, PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome), Hypothalamic dysfunction, premature ovarian failure and excess production of prolactin. (Female infertility) The premature ovarian failure means, that the person is unable to menstruate, this may happen because of non-functional ovaries, which is also known as Turners Syndrome. (Causes of infertility) This can also be defined as when a woman’s ovaries stop working before the age of 40. (Causes) PCOS is a disorder which induces hormone imbalance, affecting ovulation. It is one of the most common causes of Ovulation disorders. (Female infertility). Hypothalamic dysfunction, which is normally caused by extra physical or emotional stress, impacts the production of LH and FSH. The most common symptom is absent or irregular periods. (Female infertility. One of the other main causes of infertility in females is Tubular dysfunction.

It can be caused by scarred fallopian tubes or pelvic inflammatory disease. These problems block the tube, which prevents the fertilised egg from being properly planted in the uterus.( Causes of infertility). Other problems of infertility in women include Endometriosis, which is caused when small pieces of the womb lining start to grow in other places, which lead to damaged ovaries or fallopian tubes. (Causes). For men, Infertility is mostly a cause of Semen and Sperm problems. The poor quality of Semen may be because of either lack of sperm or abnormal sperm, which can either result in no sperm being able to reach the egg. (Causes). For men, it can also be a result of Sexual problems, for example, failure of ejaculation or nerve damage. (Male Infertility) These problems can also be known as erection or ejaculation difficulties. Hypogonadism may be another issue which causes infertility, this means that there is an abnormally low level of testosterone, which is the male hormone making sperm. (Causes)

There are many treatments for making people fertile again one of them is Laparoscopic surgery.It is only for women, may be done because of pain during intercourse or severe menstrual cramps or pelvic pain. (Gurevich, Rachel.) It’s a one-day surgical procedure, which finds any irregularities in the reproductive system and fixes them. The surgery uses a small camera to have a visual examination of the reproductive system. (Laparoscopy Infertility Treatment). The surgery examines the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries for any causes of infertility. Once the issue is recognised, it can be corrected on the same day.

The treatment does use anaesthesia and may take up to 30 to 45 minutes. (Laparoscopy Fertility Treatment) Like every surgery, laparoscopy has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages include Small abdominal incisions and less pain while most common problems after the surgery may be Abdominal pain or Nausea, pain around incision sites or even a hoarse throat due to the breathing tubes. (Rosenthal, Lisa.) The disadvantages may include Bladder infection after surgery or skin irritation, these are some common risks. (Gurevich, Rachel) More severe risks may include Nerve damage, the formation of adhesion and hematomas or Allergic reactions. (Laparoscopy Fertility Treatment) All of these risks are always possible since there is always a chance of misconduct or unknown problems inside our bodies. If we have any kind of blood problems or even previous surgeries, things can always go wrong.

Due to all the medical advancements only 1-2 % of patients who undergo laparoscopic surgery experience complications. (Laparoscopy Fertility Treatment) For the procedure, usually, 2 or more incisions are made. One is slit in the navel while the other one in the lower abdomen. Then the gas is put in, to inflate the pelvic area, which allows an easier view of the pelvic organs. The laparoscope is the only instrument which is put through the navel incision while all the other instruments are placed through other incision, which allows the pelvis to be thoroughly inspected. A dye is usually passed into the fallopian tubes to check for blockage. (Laparoscopy Infertility Treatment) With the surgery, the Fallopian tube may be unblocked or repaired (Gurevich, Rachel.)

With the question of infertility treatments, the main thing that rises up is Religion, different religions have different beliefs. From Christianity to Judaism to Islam, and many more. All these religions have different ideas of what is good and bad for their people. For example, Catholics oppose Vitro fertilization because of two main reasons, one they believe that human dignity is best respected when 2 people conceive a child using a sexual union, and this does not occur when treatments are involved or the baby is made in a laboratory. They also believe that doing this the power to bring the baby into the world also depends on doctors and biologists, other than the parents themselves. The second reason is based on genetically modified baby’s DNA, in Vitro fertilisation, there is a chance that the baby made is prone to genetic defects, therefore making it morally unacceptable with the Catholics. (What Does The Church Teach About IVF?) The Church does not allow any third party reproduction, which may include egg or sperm donors. (Shank, Melodie)

For Judaism, the Jewish teachings which don’t exactly go against Vitro fertilisation, they do allow women to donate their eggs for infertile couples. (Shank, Melodie) There is a lot of debate in Jewish teachings about this topic, which ranges from Artificial insemination to Surrogacy. (Staff, Kveller) Although the Jewish believe Fertilisation treatments are ok they are limited to certain things, for example, they allow In-Vitro fertilization but they do have concerns regarding extra eggs, abortions and surrogacy. With all these issues, it is still unsure about how much Jewish teachings accept Infertility treatments.

From all this research we can definitely say that infertility is a big issue, that sometimes can’t be solved, but there many cases where it is still possible to conceive a baby. Although some religions don’t exactly allow it.

 

  1. Causes”. Nhs.Uk, 2018, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/infertility/causes/ . Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
  2. “Causes Of Infertility”. Fertilityexpert.Co.Uk, 2012, http://www.fertilityexpert.co.uk/CausesOfInfertility.html . Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
  3. Female Infertility.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 8 Mar. 2018, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-infertility/symptoms-causes/syc-20354308. (3/09/2018)
  4. Graves, Jim. “Church Teaching On In Vitro Fertilization – Catholic World Report”. Catholicworldreport.Com, 2012, https://www.catholicworldreport.com/2012/11/29/church-teaching-on-in-vitro-fertilization/.  Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
  5. Gurevich, Rachel. “Here’s What Happens During A Laparoscopy For Infertility”. Verywell Family, 2017, https://www.verywellfamily.com/laparoscopy-for-infertility-1960160 . Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
  6. “Laparoscopy Fertility Treatment | LLU Center for Fertility & IVF.” Loma Linda University Center for Fertility & IVF, https://lomalindafertility.com/treatments/fertility-testing/for-women/laparoscopy/
  7. “Laparoscopy Infertility Treatment | Denver | Colorado Springs | CU.” University of Colorado Advanced Reproductive Medicine, https://arm.coloradowomenshealth.com/services/treatments/surgery/laparoscopy/
  8. “Male Infertility.” Andrology Australia, https://andrologyaustralia.org/your-health/male-infertility/ .
  9. Newcombe, Rachel. “Male And Female Infertility”. Fertilityexpert.Co.Uk, 2010, http://www.fertilityexpert.co.uk/MaleAndFemaleInfertility.html . Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
  10. Religion And Assisted Fertility: Do Your Beliefs Impact Your Infertility Treatment Choices? | Babymed.Com”. Babymed.Com, 2012, https://www.babymed.com/blogs/summer-banks/religion-and-assisted-fertility-do-your-beliefs-impact-your-infertility-treatment.  Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
  11. Rosenthal, Lisa. “Infertility and Laparoscopy- When Surgery Is Necessary.” Path To Fertility Blog by RMACT, 4 Aug. 2010, https://fertility-news.rmact.com/Path-To-Fertility-Blog/bid/41517/Infertility-and-Laparoscopy-When-Surgery-is-Necessary
  12. Shank, Melodie. “IVF: Religion & Fertility Treatment: Catholic, Jewish, Muslim & IVF”. Fertilityauthority.Com, 2012, https://www.fertilityauthority.com/articles/religion-and-third-party-reproduction.  Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
  13. Staff, Kveller. “Fertility Technology In Jewish Law – Kveller”. Kveller, 2018, https://www.kveller.com/article/fertility-technology-in-jewish-law/.  Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
  14. “What Does The Church Teach About IVF? | Catholics Come Home”. Catholicscomehome.Org, https://www.catholicscomehome.org/what-does-the-church-teach-about-ivf/.  Accessed 9 Sept 2018.

 

The trade war between China and the US

Hey guys, So today I’ll be talking about the ongoing trade war between China and U.S. I hope you like this post, don’t forget to like, comment and share.

As far as I could find, the trade dispute and war of words between the United States and China started way earlier than this year. Here is a series of events that led up to where we are right now.
Let us flashback and see what happened in the past. In September 2011, Trump tweeted “China is neither an ally or a friend — they want to beat us and own our country.”, This tweet was one of the comments he made about China’s trade practices. This was before he ran for Presidency. This resurfaced again in 2016, but it finally got stronger this year. Then in May 2016, Trump made the following comment: “We can’t continue to allow China to rape our country and that’s what they’re doing. It’s the greatest theft in the history of the world.” This was when he was campaigning for the Republican Party’s presidential nomination; This was one the several statements he made about China’s trade practices during his campaigning. Then in April 2017, the USTR (United States Trade Representative) got authorised to check if Aluminum/steel imports pose a threat to the national security. Later in April 2017, Chinese President Xi visited Trump in his Mar-a-Lago estate in Florida, where they decided to set up a 100-day action plan to settle the trade differences.
Later on May 22 2017, China and US agreed on a trade deal, which would give US firms greater access to China’s agriculture, energy, and financial markets, while China would gain access to sell cooked poultry to the US. In August, the USTR started an investigation into certain acts, policies and practices of the Chinese government relating to technology transfer, intellectual property and innovation. In November of 2017, Trump paid a state visit to China, which is said to have made the relations better. Later in February 2018, The US put up ‘Global safeguard Tariffs’, placing a 30% tariff on all solar panel imports, except the ones imported from Canada, (worth US$8.5 billion) and a 20% tariff on washing machine imports, which were worth US$1.8billion.
In March 2018, Trump signed a memorandum, which directed the following acts:
To file a WTO case against China for their discriminatory licensing practices;
To restrict investment in key technology sectors; and
To impose tariffs on Chinese products (such as aerospace, information communication technology and machinery).
The US also imposed a 25% Tariff on all steel imports, except Argentina, Australia, Brazil and S.Korea, they also imposed a 10% tariff on all aluminium imports, except Argentina and Australia.
To Counter on US steel and Aluminium tariffs, In April 2018 China imposed taxes (Ranging 15-25 %) on 128 products, worth US$3 billion. The products included fruit, wine, seamless steel pipes, pork and recycled aluminium.
Later on April 3rd 2018, the USTR released a list of 1,334 proposed products, subject to a potential 25% tariff. (List was revised on June 15) All of the products worth US$50 billion. Reacting to the USTR’s list, China proposed 25% tariffs be applied on 106 products also worth US$50 billion, including goods such as Soybeans, automobile and chemicals, (list revised on June 16) This kept going on back and forth. Then on April 16, The US Department of Commerce decided that Chinese telecom company ZTE transgressed US sanctions. Also banning US companies, from doing business with ZTE for seven years. Then anti-dumping duties of 178.6% on Sorghum from the US, were declared by China. Then the rest of April went by, then US-China had trade talks in Beijing, where the US requested that China diminish the Trade gap by US$200 billion in two years. Talks finished with no resolution. In May 2018, Trump tweeted about Promising to help ZTE. Then Later in May, China’s Commerce ministry declared that they would stop the tariffs on US Sorghum at discussions. When reportedly China was said to have agreed to buy more US Goods, US and China decide to put the trade war on hold. This truce lasted a short time because on May 29 US reinstated the Tariff plans. There were more trade talks in June between the two countries. Later US and ZTE agreed to let ZTE continue its business. In June both countries reviewed and finalised their tariff lists, which were set to take effect on July 6. The US decreased their 1,334 items to 818 items with 25% tariff. There was a second list by the USTR consisting of 284 new items which were still under consideration. China increased their proposed 106 products to 545 products, with a 25% tariff. To counter against USTR’s 2nd list, China proposed a second round of 25% tariffs on an additional 114 items. Both Country specific tariffs took effect on July 6th. In July the USTR discharged a third list of taxes of more than 6,000 products originating in China (worth US$200 billion), which will be liable to a 10% tax. In August, on Trump’s decision, the USTR considered a 25% tax on List 3 rather than 10%. This Included goods from the following categories: consumer products, chemical and construction materials, textiles, tools, food and agricultural products, commercial electronic equipment and vehicle/automotive parts. To retaliate against US’s potential third round of tariffs, in August China announced a second round of taxes on 5,207 products originating from the US, worth around US$60 billion; this included the following:
– 25 % on 2,493 products (agricultural, products, foods, textiles and – products, chemicals, metal products, machinery);
– 20 %on 1,078 products (foods, paperboard, chemicals works of art);
– 10% on 974 products (agricultural products, chemicals, glassware); and
– 5 % on 662 products (chemicals, machinery, medical equipment).
In August both countries also finalised and released the second round of Tariffs. The 10% tariff on list two was increased to 25%. Five of the 284 things in the first list distributed on June 15 were removed, these being: alginic acid, part machines, compartments, coasting docks, and microtomes (by and large worth US$400 million in 2017). While China announced a corresponding 25 % extra duty on US$16 billion of US fares to China. Both lists were to put to effect on August 23 2018. Also in August, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce declared that a formal case had been held up at the WTO against the US for its taxes on solar panels, claiming that US taxes have harmed China’s trade interests. US and Chinese mid-level agents also met in Washington to examine approaches to determine the developing exchange struggle and heightening levies. The talks ended with no real leaps forward. China additionally recorded another WTO grievance against the United States’ Section 301 duties on Chinese products issued on August 23 under List 2 (25% taxes on US$16 billion). In September a lot of things happened, Trump threatened new tariffs. The US also invited China to re-open the negotiations. In September, the US also finalised list 3 of the tariffs, worth US$200 billion on Chinese goods. The US says that the taxes will go live on September 24 at an underlying rate of 10%, to be extended to 25% by January 1, 2019. China also announced that they would put tariffs on US goods worth US$60 billion. China cancelled trade talks planned with the US, before the tariffs on US$200 billion worth of Chinese goods, was put into place. On September 24, both countries put their third rounds of tariffs into effect. The US implemented tariffs on US$200 billion while China implemented tariffs on US$60 billion. During this China also released a White paper, which laid out the government’s official position in the Trade relationship between both countries. Two days after these tariffs were put into place, Trump accused China of meddling in the upcoming US elections. But the only evidence he brought in were advertisements (designed to look like articles) that China bought in some US newspapers. In the end, the Total US tariffs applied exclusively to China were US$250 billion, and the total Chinese tariffs solely applied to the US were US$110 billion.

This whole timeline is to connect different pieces of puzzles and to understand the trade war background, it not only shows how the disputes started but also how they may turn out, even though what is going on right now is a bit confusing at it is unsure what both countries want out of this. For me, I think that this timeline helps us know when one of the countries feel threatened by the other country, and most often they retaliate by doing the same thing the first country did. This timeline also assists us in knowing which country has the upper hand at certain times and when that same country can’t do anything.

Looking at how this trade war will impact not only China and the US but also the majority of Asia. Since we know that both the countries are large economies and if China’s economy falls there is going to be a significant impact on the less developed countries in Asia.
Both countries are being affected by this in small and significant ways. A lot of goods and products that people buy will have a rise in their prices which will most likely affect the consumers. There will also be impacts to business that use the raw materials imported from the other country. The companies being affected can also result in them shutting down and unemployment. This may cast the negative impact on the economy of the country since it may drop as there will be more unsuccessful businesses and disappointed citizens who are going to either be unemployed or are not going to be able to afford supplies. According to different experts of economics, if the tariffs by the US to China keep going, China’s economic growth will decrease. But these countries are not the only ones being affected. A lot of Asia is being impacted by this war and may also be affected in the future even though it’s unsure if the results are going to be positive or negative. This trade war also inherits some opportunities for other players in Asia, such as when China stops having agriculture imports from the US ; it will look for other potential partners to deal as a substitute for the US, which will most likely be in Asia; however it depends on the political positioning and alignment of those countries who are willing to deal with China. While the US will try to export the same agricultural products to someone else which could be in Latin America or Asia. This trade war could be beneficial to some Asian countries, but it could have a devastating effect on other countries.

Although it is unsure where this leads, we are sure about one thing; this could either result in a better deal between the US and China, or this could ruin what remains of the relationship and have an actual and decisive trade war among them. A war between these two countries was long expected, but it was not expected in the form of a trade war, which is why there is a lot of confusion going around as to what is going to happen next. There have been talks between both countries, but all of them seem to end without any resolution.

One lesson learnt for the US is that most of their trades depended solely on China, and now because of these unpredicted taxes, quite a few businesses are going into loss. The best thing they could have done was to have had better relationships with other countries if this had been, the US would have been in a better place. It looks that the US failed to create alternatives sources of trade, and took rigid position not only against China but agiant its allies in Europe.
China will be in a better place for the agricultural products as there are a lot of Asian countries willing to make deals with China, in fact, India has already signed contracts to ship 500,000 bales (85,000 tonnes) of its new season cotton harvest to China. The US, on the other hand, will have a lot of trouble exporting their agricultural goods as Asian countries may not be willing to have the exports and the Latin American countries are not on good political terms with the US. The overall is that the US is going to have problems regarding their trade, but China may also face some consequences. I think that since they can not seem to agree on anything, there are going to unintended consequences, which will affect both countries economy but there will also be social and political implications. Social as in citizens of both countries will be having troubles, they will very likely have business problems, and unemployment will increase. The trust deficit will widen between the government and the people. The political implications will include trust being broken, and relationships will be prone to damage, and if this escalates further, it will also pose a threat to other countries. There will also be problems for the US businesses in China, which will have to return to the US, they will have issues since the production cost in China is way cheaper than in the US. The US also has a lot of tight regulations, higher labour and material cost which make difficult for businesses to compete against Chinese products in open market, to produce competitive goods the US will have to offer relaxation to the producers which seems unlikely to open in the current political environment.

To conclude, I would like to say that as this trade war continues, and unless this ends with an agreement to help both countries, everyone, may very well hold their breath because we may be approaching war between two of the world most economically developed countries. If the countries decide to do something like this, they should not only look at the economic implications but also social and political implications, as there may be unintended consequences.
Sources:
The US-China Trade War: A Timeline – China Briefing News. http://www.china-briefing.com/news/2018/09/10/the-us-china-trade-war-a-timeline.html
Tan, Weizhen. “US-China Spat Could Affect Fast-Growing Asian Trade, But It’s Also An Opportunity For Some Economies”. CNBC, 2018, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/06/26/us-china-trade-war-would-be-an-opportunity-for-some-asian-economies.html. Accessed 30 Sept 2018.
“How US Tariffs Are Expected To Hit China’S Growth Rates”. South China Morning Post, 2018, https://www.scmp.com/news/china/ecconomy/article/2160843/how-us-tariffs-are-expected-weigh-chinas-growth-rate. Accessed 30 Sept 2018

 

I hope you liked this post, don’t forget to like, comment and share.

Interpreting data about the World population

Hey guys. Sorry for not posting for a while. I Hope you enjoy today’s post.

So today we’ll be looking into data interpretation, the world population, how different areas impact the world population and what factors influence the global population. I have been learning about this in class, and I thought it would be fun to share that information with you guys.
The picture down below is the one we’ll be interpreting today:

Screen Shot 2018-09-06 at 5.39.13 PM

From the image, you can easily come up with three main questions,
1. What is the overall pattern of the graph?
2. What is the contribution of LEDC (Less economically developed countries) in the global population?
3. What is the contribution of MEDC (More economically developed countries) in the global population?

Let’s answer these questions:
The answer to the first question by looking at the graph is:
There is a steady incline in population from the 1950s, especially for the LEDC’s as there population growth has had a lot of impacts rather than the MEDC’s who also have had an increase although not as high as the LEDc’s. The population for the less developed countries increased to go more than 10 billion, while the more developed countries had a population less 2 billion, throughout the years.

The answer to the 2nd questions by looking at the graph and also reflecting on our previous response we get that the contribution of LEDC’s is much higher for the Global population growth. The increase slowly starts to increase from the 1750’s but starts to get even higher after the 1950s, and reaches the limit of 10 billion and increasing by 2150.

Finally, to the answer the last question we look at the graph but also read over our previous two solutions, which leaves us with the fact that the contribution of MEDC’s is way lower than LEDC’s. Looking at the graph, it starts very low and only goes as high as 1 billion, which is 9 billion less than the LEDC’s. Indicating that MEDC’s contribute less than LEDC’s, but also makes us curious as to know why. The peak for MEDC’s starts to slightly go down after maybe 2050, further lowering its contribution.

After doing all this, We’ll look at another graph for more specific contributions to the global population. We need to get more specific on what specific regions contribute more to the global population than others. We’ll look at the following graph:

Screen Shot 2018-09-06 at 5.39.35 PM

After looking and observing the graph, we’ll answer the question: What regions contributes more to the global population than others?
After looking at the graph, I decided on the following answer:
The population distribution was less affected in North America, Oceania and Asia, while there was a significant increase and decrease in the areas of Europe and Africa. As the European region had a significant drop in population from the 1800s to 2000s to 2050s, while the African region had more of a notable increase from the 1800s where the population was 10.9% while 2050s went up as high as 19.8%, so almost 20%, leaving us with a 10% increase in the African region and a 13.8% decrease in the European region. The Asian region had a drop from 1800 to 1900 and then again from 2000 to 2050, but none of the decreases were as significant as the ones in the European region. Latin America had an increase in population from 1900 to 2000. The most significant impact in North America was from 1800 to 1900, where the population rose about 4%, Oceania, however, had no significant increases or decreases through the 1800s to 2050, with the increases only being as high as 0.1%. As of right now, Oceania only equips 0.54% of the world’s population, while Asia takes up 59.66% of the world population.

After we get all this information yet, one question remains, What are some reasons for the increase and decrease in population.
To answer this question, you brainstorm:
Here are mine and some other people’s brainstorm ideas:
Quality of life increasing through the years
>LEDC: fewer resources to prevent unintended pregnancies
> Economic development
>LEDC: Child labour, when low-income families see their children as sources of income.
>Increase in Money
>Illegal immigration, leading to population increase specific regions
>Increase in life expectancy
>A rise in fertility rates
>Vaccines
>Germs
>Hygiene
>Birth rate
>Antibiotics
>Industrial revolution
>Farming → Engines
>Railroads → steam engines
>Better construction
>Genetically Modified Crops
>Spreading information
>Refrigeration
>Oil/Coal
>Purified water
>Electricity
>Light
>Less Combat death
>Baby boom
>Diplomacy + Development
>Globalization
>Import and Export

–> All of the reasons mentioned above and many more contributed to the increase and decrease in the global population.

I hope you guys learnt something from this post. If you have any ideas relating to this topic, don’t forget to tell it to me in the comments down below and don’t forget to like and share.

 

Little Rock 9

I’m baaack, Hey guys I hope you’re doing good. So I’m back with one more Black history article. I promise this is the last one. This one’s about Little Rock Nine. I hope you like it.

The Little Rock nine were 9 African American Students who defied racial segregation in the schools of Little Rock, Arkansas. The group included Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Pattillo, Gloria Ray, Terrence Roberts, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Walls. These students did what every figure in the civil rights movement would come to do, Never gave up. These students faced violence every day, but they kept coming back because equal education was in their rights.

In summer 1957, these nine students enrolled at Little Rock central HIgh school, which formerly was white, Their decision to enrol was a test for the decision of brown v.s  Board of education in 1954. The decision had declared segregation of schools, unconstitutional. However, Gov.Orval Faubus said that he would not allow integration in his area’s schools.

He set up national guard outside the school to prevent the 9 African American students from entering the schools.  Protesters and Angry white mobs harmed the Little rock 9 when they tried to enter the school on September 2nd, 1957.  This encounter made it to many newspapers and television who dubbed the students “Little Rock 9.”

The Students lingered at home for 18 days while president Eisenhower, Governor Faubus, and Little Rock’s mayor, Woodrow Mann.

On September 25th the students joined the school with the protection of U.S Soldiers. However, due to the rise in Violence and state insubordination, the president sent in an elite 101st Airborne division known as the “Screaming Eagles.” Also placing the National Guard under Federal Command.

The little rock 9 continued to face violence throughout the school year, and when Minnijean Brown started to retaliate, she got expelled. The rest of the eight students continued to study in the school. In 1958, Senior Ernest Green became the first African American student to graduate from Little Rock Central high school

The Civil Right Movement has mainly focused around on education.  Education, many believed, would help African Americans to get better jobs and to gain influence in American society. However, overcoming school segregation, especially in the South, meant extreme facing opposition and risking extreme violence.  Little Rock Nine served as a Catalyst for the Civil rights movement when the states started to stall desegregation. The civil rights movement led to the Congress to take action through the civil rights act of 1964; the law made it illegal to separate people based on their Race, religion, or origin in almost all aspects of the society.  Summing-up the Little Rock nine were figures who did something many failed to do.

Elisabeth-Eckford-one-of-the-first-African-American-students-at-Little-Rock-Central-High-being-harassed-by-Hazel-Massery-1957.-Reddit

Elisabeth Eckford, one of the first African-American students at Little Rock Central High being harassed by Hazel Massery, 1957. Reddit

 

Resources:

Little Rock Nine Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. January 02, 2018 https://www.britannica.com/topic/Little-Rock-Nine May 22, 2018

History.com Staff,  History.com,  2010, Little Rock  Nine,http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/central-high-school-integration May 22, 2018

http://historycollection.co/24-photographs-nine-students-changed-world/

Summary of Brown v.s Board of Education Supreme court case

Hey guys!, I hope you’re doing good. So here’s one more post about black history, This may or may not be the last, we’ll see. So this one’s about Brown v.s Board of Education one of the most important supreme cases in Black history. I hope you like it.

Brown vs Board of education was perhaps one of the most critical moments in Black history. This case helped black students to finally go to school with white students giving them an equal chance at studying and learning as the whites. This case gave hope to many African Americans that, “Separate but equal” would ultimately be gone. It gave them hope for the future, that their lives would get slightly better. The case was a huge stepping stone which would lead to a bridge which would lead the African- Americans to a better life. This case shed light on Segregation which had taken over the south. This case was a move towards a better future, a future which every black kid wanted.

February 28, 1951, Marks the day the case was filed by Oliver brown to the Federal district court, in Kansas. Following it many more segregated school cases were filed. Finally, in October 1952, the Supreme court announced that all the school cases would be filed under Brown vs Board of Education. During December 9th – 11th, the first round of arguments were held. The second round of discussions was held on 1953, December 7th – ninth. May 17, 1954, the day when the unanimous verdict which overturned Plessy v.s Ferguson and stated that “Separate but Equal” was considered unconstitutional. That day many black people rejoiced, not because they won the case but because there was still hope for the future. Later on May 31, 1955, Supreme court handed down Brown II, Ordering to start desegregation at all deliberate speed. This was significant as the term “All deliberate speed” was vague, this stalled desegregation in states, which served as the breeding ground for student protests which lead to the Civil rights Movement.

There were many Significant moments during that time, which helped shape the Unanimous decision. Some of them dated way back, before the case was even brought in the supreme court. 1908 July 2nd, The day when Thurgood Marshall was born, this day was of extreme importance because Thurgood Marshall would go on to become the Lead counsel in the Brown v.s Board of Education. 1909 when the NAACP was formed, this day has a significance because, in the coming years, NAACP would help in winning the case. Then fast forward to 8th September 1953, Chief Justice Fred Vinson Jr. died of a heart attack, this was significant because Justice Earl Warren was nominated in his place and would later address the unanimous ruling in the Brown v. Board case.

The Browns won this case because the Judges compared the arguments and also based them on the 12, 13 and 14 amendments but also on evidence found about what white students are being taught. Studying in the same place as blacks would teach whites that blacks are not bad as they are being shown. The impact was a good one as it was a significant step in desegregating America. This case ruling gave hope to many African-Americans that “Equal but Separate” would ultimately be gone. This case was prominent in Black history because this case got rid of segregation in schools and made sure that the phrase “Separate but Equal.” was unconstitutional and that it did not have a place in the society.  The Legacy of this case was passed through every generation of the black families. This case gave light to black people; it gave them hope for a better future.

One significant event which led to civil rights movement was after the May 31, Brown II decision which said to try and remove segregation at all deliberate speed, many places in south managed to avoid or stall desegregation for a long time which catalysed for students to start the civil rights movement. The civil rights movement led to the Congress to take action through the civil rights act of 1964; the law made it illegal to separate people based on their Race, religion, or origin in almost all aspects of the society.  To conclude the Brown vs Board of Education was indeed a significant moment in History, which led to many improvements in Blacks daily life.

Resources:

History.com History.com 2009 Brown v. Board of Education http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka May 07, 2018

Meador, Derrick. “How Brown v. Board of Education Changed Public Education for the Better.” ThoughtCo, Apr. 12, 2018, https://www.thoughtco.com/brown-v-board-of-education-summary-3194665   

Kelly, Martin. “Brown v. Board of Education.” ThoughtCo, Jul. 14, 2017, https://www.thoughtco.com/brown-v-board-of-education-104963  

https://www.ncpedia.org/civil-rights-movement/brown-v-board-of-education

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brown-v-board/timeline.html

The Jim crow laws

Hey guys, as I said be notified for more posts to come this week, here’s one more. Enjoy. This post is about Jim Crow laws in the U.S

Jim Crow law:  In U.S. history, any of the laws that enforced racial segregation in the South between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the beginning of the civil rights movement in the 1950s. From the late 1870s, Southern state legislatures, no longer controlled by carpetbaggers and freedmen, passed laws requiring the separation of whites from “persons of colour” in public transportation and schools. Generally, anyone of ascertainable or strongly suspected black ancestry in any degree was for that purpose a “person of colour”;
Jim Crow Law: Jim Crow refers to a series of racist laws and measures that discriminated against African-Americans. Even though these laws were enacted between 1876 and 1965, the effects of Jim Crow are relevant today. Jim Crow was the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 and the mid-1960s. Based on ideas of black inferiority, to stop blacks to become equal to white men.

Segregation: Separation because of race, gender or religion

Two types of Segregation:

  1. De Jure: Rules or Laws of segregation enforced by the Law to the state
  2. De Facto: Policies of Segregation not enforced by the Law instead is enforced by Local business or is normal in the Society

Integration: acceptance as equals into a society of persons of different groups (as races)

Due to the social intolerability of racial equality, people of various races were not allowed to share waiting rooms. By being supported even at the local police department, it shows just how much racial tensions had affected the governing systems of the United States. Though people of a different race were allowed to ride the same bus, all coloured riders were forced by law to sit in the back in marked coloured sections or had to sacrifice their seats to white passengers if the white part became full. Often, they were not even permitted to enter the bus through the same door to further symbolises racial dominance of one over the other.

The black and whites were allowed into theatres if they behaved well and the owners were allowed to have separate compartments for white and black people.

The Jim Crow Museum:

Located in: Ferris State University
Address: 1010 Campus Dr, Big Rapids, MI 49307, USA
This museum is about showing people the artefacts were black were tolerated and telling people that they need to learn about tolerance and social justice. The pieces in the Museum were put there to teach the people that these were all caricatures, that they were lies and deception and not real. The main reason for the museum was to use the objects of Intolerance to Teach Tolerance and promote Social Justice. In the museum we see objects or figures of stereotypical black people, which show white people that they are superior to Black people, We see signs which separate White and coloured people. We see tickets which refer to coloured and white people being separated which further adds on to the Idea that Black people were inferior to White people. The objects also tell us that being Racist was a norm, that it was Cultural to consider Black people inferior to white people. I think it is essential to have such a museum because it teaches the new generation and people like us, that there was a time when this happened and that we should try and correct those mistakes, make amends with each other, to accept each other as one. The museum has many artefacts which refer to Black people being portrayed as stupid and uneducated, which developed the fact that calling black people. Idiots or stupid was normal. The museum teaches us that we should learn from the past and try and make the present and future better.

 

Resources:

Types Of Segregation – Civil Rights May 05, 2018 https://kaylawinandywd.weebly.com/types-of-segregation.html

I hope you like this post

The NAACP (National Association of Advancements for Coloured People) Essay

Hey guys. Sorry for not posting for some time. SO recently I have been looking into Civil rights in the U.S, and I came across an organisation known as the NAACP, So I decided to write an essay on the association. I hope you like it. DOn’t forget to add your ideas or contact me through my email.

NAACP, also known as the National Association of the Advancements of Coloured people was founded on February 12, 1909, due to the Springfield Race riot in 1908, This riot was full of violence which led to the creation of the NAACP, a group of white liberals, which included Mary White Ovington and Oswald Garrison Villard, William English Walling and Dr Henry Moscowitz. They called a meeting to address and discuss Racial Justice. 60 people, agreed which included 7 African Americans ((including W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, and Mary Church Terrell). It was released on the centennial of Lincoln’s birth. The NAACP echoed the movements and works of the Niagara Movement from 1905, which focused on Civil rights. The NAACP intended to secure rights for people guaranteed in the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments to the United States Constitution, which promised an end to slavery, the equal protection of the law, and universal adult male suffrage, respectively. The NAACP focuses on eliminating racial prejudice for all minority races using the democratic process.

In 1910,  A national office was established in New York. Du Bois was the only African American among the originals, He was made the director of publications and research. He also established the official Journal for NAACP, named The Crisis in 1910.

The Crisis was and is the Official voice for civil rights. It was founded to address and discuss issues and problems faced by the African Americans. It shared the intellectual and artistic works of coloured people. During its first decades, It focused on aspects of the utmost importance like Lynching and world war I. From 1920-21, The Brownie’s book, was published as a children’s version of the Crisis. It was the first periodical exclusively for the African-American Youth. With time, it became a voice for the Harlem Renaissance. Du Bois started to publish works of famous literary figures of the society. In 1928 Krigwa Players (CRIGWA: Crisis Guild of Writers and Artists) was founded, Which fostered theatre production about, by, for and near the African American community. To this day, The crisis remains the official publication of the NAACP


Lynching was one of the primary focus for the NAACP. They saw it for what it was a cruel act against innocent people, rather than excusing it like most of America at the time. One of their first known public events was an anti-lynching protest. It was a Silent Protest Parade where over 10,000 African-Americans marched down Fifth Avenue of New York City. This Silent March helped the NAACP gain a lot of attention and support for their activism.The NAACP’s anti-lynching crusade became a prime focus for the group during its early decades. Eventually, the NAACP was unable to get a federal anti-lynching law passed; however, its efforts increased public awareness of the issue and are thought to have contributed to an ultimate decline in lynchings. By 1919, there were around 90,000 members and more than 300 local branches.

The NAACP played a focal role in the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. One of the organisation’s key achievements was the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education that outlawed segregation in public schools. Pioneering civil-rights attorney Thurgood Marshall, the head of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (LDF), successfully appealed the case before the court. Marshall, who founded the LDF in 1940, won many important civil rights cases involving issues such as voting rights and discriminatory housing methods. In 1967, he became the first African American to serve as a Supreme Court justice. The NAACP also took part in helping to organise 1963, March on Washington, which was one of the biggest civil rights rallies in the U.S History. They also helped in running the 1964’s Mississippi Freedom Summer. An action to allow Black Mississippians to vote.

Although the world has progressed immensely, Troubles for coloured people still continue and therefore organisations like NAACP, are still needed. And may also be required in the near future. NAACP is an organisation which will always be needed as the world keeps evolving, there will always be a moment when people, will need someone to show them the correct way. Thank you

Hopefully, I will post more this week!, Be notified

Resources:

NAACP – Black Women and the Anti-Lynching Campaign. May 01, 2018

http://blackwomenandanti-lynching.weebly.com/naacp.html

NAACP – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com. May 01, 2018

https://preview.history.com/topics/naacp

NAACP | Oldest and Boldest. May 01, 2018

http://www.naacp.org/oldest-and-boldest/